Results of the Survey


Descriptives of the Survey

In this survey participated 22 twins, fraternals (same-sex and different sexes) as well as identicals. However, these questions were not always answered by twin pairs only, but also just one member of the twins, who answered this questionnaire. 19 (86 %) of that participants are from Germany and only 3 (14%) from other countries(Greece, Great Britain and Tatarstan). The youngest of the participants is 15 and the oldest is 32, the average age is 26. Most of those twins share a similar educational level and social background.

The first questions answer some basic informative subjects and also some stereotypes that are associated with twins, like the left-handedness and the stuttering. Then, all the questions are more based on Cryptophasia and everything that could have caused it, like the questions of proximity between the twins and the possible consequences, which I based on the questions where I asked for possible speech defects. To see if there are some correlations between Cryptophasia and closeness and some other parameters, I compared some variables that are from interest and created some statistical relations. Since the whole questionnaire is based on retrospecive answers, some of the results can be biased. This means that the whole survey can only describe a tendency.

Firstly there are presented some descriptives of the current sample:

This chart gives an overview on how many percent of people participated from Germany and how many percent from other countries.

This table shows how many fraternal and identical twins participated.

In this chart all fraternal twin pairs are seperated in same-sex pairs and different-sex pairs and it is clearly shown that under the participants are a lot more same-sex fraternal twins.

Since not all of the participants answered as twin-pairs, there were more first-borns, who answered the questionnaire.

To the question, if the first-born of the twins would be more dominant, 64% answerd with yes.

This chart shows, if the twins were seperated in either kinderkarten or school, or if they stayd in the same classes. Most of the twin parirs were not seperated.

This table shows the percentage of shyness of the twins.

This chart shows, if the twins enjoyed to play with their twin as a child or rather enjoyed to play with other children.

Here is shown if twins made use of an invented language or not.

This chart examplifies the relation of how many twins enjoyed to talk to adults.

On this table it can be seen how many percent of twins stuttered during their childhood.

This shows the percentage of twins who had speech difficulties as a child, in total 46%.

Statistical Relations


In the following section there are presented some relations between the variable "Autonomous Language" and other speech-concerned variables, like closseness (security when being together with their twin, missing of the twin, sharing the same friends), speech problems (gesticulation, speech difficulties) and shyness factors (talking to adults). For these computations the sample has been divided into two groups: One group says that the twins had some kind of an autonomous language; the other group negates it (question xy in the survey). The groups had same sample sizes containing 11 individuals/participants each. The groups were compared, based on several variables concerning speech, language and closeness.

This chart describes the number of participants who used a cryptophasic languaguage and later on suffered from speech disabilities. 55% of those who used an autonomous language also had speech difficulties later on, but also 36% of twins who had no language of their own, also developed speech difficulties. There is no significant statistic found, which means there is no significant difference between the groups.

This chart expresses the rate of twins who used a language of their own and at the same time felt more secure when their twin was with them than being alone somewhere. But also 55% of twins who didn't use an autonomous language felt more secure when their twin-partner was around, too. There is also no significant statistic found, which again means there is no significant difference between the groups.

This chart shows, that no matter if the twins used a language of their own or not, preferred to spend time with their twin (82% with a language of their own, and even 91% who didn't have an own language). Since the grops are almost identical again, there is also no significant statistic found.

91 % of the participants who said that they had an own language with their twin, said that they gesticulated much, whereas only 50% of these without a language did the same. There was a moderate significant association between the grouping: variable (own language/no own language) and gesticulation (χ2(1) = 4.30; p = .04). (χ = chi square distribution, p = level of significance. That means, that the groups differ significantly, but only moderately and not highly significant. Hence, there is a tendency of twins who used Cryptophasia and also used a lot of gesticulation.

100% of the twins who used Cryptophasia are also missing their twin, whe she/he is not around, but also 73% of those who didn't use Cryptophasia also stated that they would miss their twin when she/he is not there. However, there is no significance in the statistics.

64% percent of those twins who had an autonomous language didn't like to talk with adults as a child and only 27% of those who didn't have an autonomous language had the same problems. This shows a tendency of being marginal significant (chi square distribution = 2,93 und level of significance = .083).

The overall result shows that, nevertheless, 11 of 22 participants specified that they had some kind of twin language and it also shows that almost half (10 out of 22) had suffered from speech difficulties, which was not related to Cryptophasia, though. It still shows that twins in general have some problems with language aquisition. What is especially striking, ist that the twins who used twin language, also gesticulated more than the twins who did not state to have an invented language, which also suggests that there is some kind of communication system that they developed, which includes gestures. Also the fact that twins with an autonomous language, apparantly were more shy and didn't like to talk to adults, which occures more often with the children who invented a language, describes that the role of closeness of twins is quite important. These results, however, don't provide any real proof to the matter of twin language, since all the answers are given in retrospective and also the fact that all the participants share a similar educational backround and social class, makes the answers of the survey biased. It is only possible to give a general tendency, not an evidence.


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