Picture by CBS: "2 of a kind". Some rights reserved. Source:

To review my findings, I firstly want to state that primary language acquisition plays a vital role in the language process of twins and it shows that twins are delayed in the development of language, since they very often have articulation problems: "late onset of speech, and speech and language difficulties, including stuttering, are more common in twins than in singletons" (Schüller 17).

It is also quite clear that twins have a very unique way of learning a language, which is influenced by biological preconditions, like that "twins are frequently premature or low birth weight babies" (Schüller 17), which may cause disadvantages for speech compliance of the brain's speech areas. In a social context; a child is always very influential on its development regarding the way in how far the twins communicate with their parents, which is reduced due to the fact that twins see in each other a role model and do not orientate themselves on their parents.

The use of Cryptophasia by twins is still discussed by several linguists and also cannot be proved, but as this whole webpage shows, it cannot be completely ruled out as well. The situation of the twins actually fosters some creation of a communication system, since they are really close to each other. This ultimate closeness could trigger Cryptophasia as a sign for this very close bond, which is more probable in identical twins than fraternal twins, since they developed from the same zygote and hence share a higher uniformity. Nevertheless, it cannot be entirely proven, neither by the given examples nor by my survey, since there is no statistical relation. Nevertheless, I think, a tendency is shown in favor of Cryptophasia considering all the facts that were gathered on this website.

Also the fact that twins suffer from more speech disabilities than singletons, gives a general tendency that it might be due to the use of a cryptophasic language beforehand. That does not account for every twin pair, since they all already have shown a delay in language acquisition, but if we take the example of the "Kennedy twins", it clearly shows, that it was quite hard for them to learn their mother tongue after making use of their twin-language, which they used exclusivly. But neither in the studies of any linguist nor in my survey, there is an actual tendency between Cryptophasia and Speech impairment.

As a conclusion, it can be affirmed that the language acquisition of twins differs notably from the usual pattern of primary language acquisition, because it is fact that twins are delayed in this process and also that there might be a tendency for the existence of Cryptophasia, which is benefitted by the factor of closeness.


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